I am a molecular Virologist by training concentrating on HIV-1-induced neurological dysfunctions.  These complex series of events,  result from direct and indirect communication between virus and host cells in the brain. The direct mechanism includes replication of HIV-1 in microglia, and to a lesser degree in astrocytes, whereas the indirect pathway involves viral and cellular secretory factors that impact upon neurons and other brain cells. In both events, a cascade of regulatory reactions including signal transduction plays a pivotal role in derailing cell functions that are manifested by pathological features such as apoptosis of neuronal and astrocytic cells; demyelination; and abnormal morphological appearance of various cells within the central nervous system (CNS).